This paper reports precise queries on career planning activities which show a progressively illustrative part in the professional growth and success. Individuals are always anxious about selecting and building occupations to meet their requirements and ambitions. Career planning procedure includes both individual and organization obligation. In the current business situation, extremely competitive, we find that career supervision duty rests progressively on the employees. Companies also show a significant role; its necessity to have and preserve a skilled and technically proficient staff, considered as the chief basis for gaining the competitive lead, most innovative organization's progress and smear a combined organization career system, which proves to be advantageous both for themselves and for their workers.
Keywords: Career Planning, Human Resource Management, Planning Activities, Professional Growth
Role of Career Planning in Professional Growth and Success
In modern financial setting, the need to keep a competitive lead in the uncertain business environment has led to the development and introduction of human resource activities which were neglected in the past. Therefore a lot of businesses have started to introduce and deploy well-planned and organized career development systems for their employees.
The main aim of career planning is to identify the desires, ambitions and prospects of the career of an individual and the deployment of human resource programs to support these desired careers of the individuals. According to Schweyer, A. (2010), career development and planning is a nonstop procedure of sighting in which an individual slowly matures his professional notion as an outcome of services or aptitudes, requirements, inspirations and ambitions of his personal value system.
Planning of the careers is seen as an organized and detailed process of aiming career development and deployment approaches, self-evaluation and investigation of prospects and assessment of results. The process of career planning comprises of the responsibilities of both the organization and the individuals. This means that the individuals must interpret their inspiration, interests and ambitions through evaluation and counseling channels to comprehend their requirements of training and improvement. On the other hand, the organizations are also needed to identify their requirements and prospects in order to organize its staff and to ensure its employees the compulsory information and adequate training for the development of their careers. Sudarma, K. (2015) says that, career development should essentially connect individual requirements and inspirations with organizational requirements and prospects, assessing, directing and notifying its employees on career development, individual progress efforts with training and improvement programs.
In most of the cases, this kind of link is not developed and the organizations, mostly pay attention to the development and promotion of career opportunities for their high performance employees only and usually do not pay attention to the performance and career development opportunities of the potential employees.
The key issues that need special attention during career planning are that;
§ The members of the organization should be considered and treated as individuals with their own requirements, needs and exclusive expertise.
§ The individuals feel more inspired and motivated in the organizations which respect their ambitions and aspirations.
§ Individual may mature, evolve and develop new sequences of actions if they are given appropriate opportunities and are properly encouraged and directed.
What is the key role of career planning which lead towards professional growth?
The present study aims to find out the key role of career planning which lead towards professional growth. Furthermore, the researcher will study the role of organizations which can enhance the ability of individuals to do career planning for its professional growth. It is imperative to study the factors which enhance the career planning system and plays a vital role for an individual.
The focused literature suggests that the counseling activities for the career development should be available to all the employees as an official activity of human resource department of the organization. These activities may involve the formation of a dedicated facility for career analysis comprising of specialists who have the knowledge of both the organization’s and the individual’s requirements and goals. This step would result in healthier link between the needs and requirements of individuals and the goals and objectives of the organization.
According to the specialists in human resource management, Al-Adwani, A. B. (2011) following are some models used in the process of career planning;
Chance and Fluke: This model says that the individual getting the desired position in his career is purely based on his luck. He only needs to be present at the right place on the right time to get the desired opportunity.
Organization Knows the Best: This model is founded on the fact that individual is moved from one place to another according to the requirements. This model is held chiefly by fresh employees, who are reliant on grown-ups for all the opinions not as much as adult employees.
Self-Oriented: This model delivers significance to the individuals; they are founding their own progress throughout their career, while having help from the organization.
According to Maggiori, C. et.al (2013), there are mainly two approaches in the process of career development based on the requirements of organization and aims and desires of individuals. The first approach is the organization centered system for career planning which aims on the development and progress of human resource requirements, improvement of the quality of human resources in order to increase efficiency, defining proper paths for the careers of individuals and synchronization of organizational and individual career goals and objectives.
The second approach is person centered system for career planning which involves the identification of abilities, skills and potential of an individual, the purpose of his life and his career objectives, assessment of internal and external career opportunities for the individuals in order to request for the support of sponsors and to request for guidance in the career.
According to the theory of management and its practices, career planning strategies mainly focus on the skills, abilities, inspirations and requirements of individuals particularly. It is a multifaceted act that involves organized and cautious thinking in expressing short and long term purposes. Schweyer, A. (2010) has defined individual career planning as; all the arrangements of self-evaluation, investigation of prospects, forming objectives planned to assist the individual to make knowledgeable selections and variations about the career.
Antoniu, E. (2010), states that in order to be practical and to sustain a competitive lead in the organization, the organizations must link and match the individuals with suitable abilities in the right position. The kinds of skills of individuals are different based on the scope of the organization, technologies; characteristics of consumer etc. Uniqueness of the organization affects the structure of the jobs and the ways of development of the job. Therefore, career planning on the organizational level has a crucial role in the attraction of the individuals toward suitable position. If the organization is not involved in the process of establishment and reinforcement of the careers of individuals, it becomes impossible for the organization to meet its objectives and goals both on organizational and individual level.
Career Planning System of the Organizations
The concept of the development of static career path has become obsolete because of various variations demonstrated in the lives of individuals and the organizations. The life span of careers is becoming shorter and shorter and unstable which has led to an enormous decrease in the job security and short-term recruitment has become more common. It is expected that the individuals may switch multiple jobs throughout their career and participate in diverse range of projects.
The decreased number of jobs in the organization has led to the variations in the old-fashioned path to the career development strategies at the organizational level. The number of promotions in the organization is truncated which means that individuals keep on working on the same position for a long time period before they are promoted. The old-style career route comprised an upward movement, providing the individuals the assurance of well-defined promotion trails. Now, the stress is laid on job variation, numerous talents progress and sideways upgrade. Scheming and applying a career planning system is beneficial to the organizations for recognizing the employee’s progress requirements and synchronizing them to the business objectives.
Career development and planning system is responsible to increase the professional satisfaction of individuals as it helps them to take jobs and responsibilities according to their personal goals and objectives. From the perspective of organization, the career planning system reduces the time required to fill up the vacant positions for the jobs and helps in succession planning, identifies the employees with the potential management skills and ensure the opportunities to all the individuals to identify the goals and objectives of their careers and promotes strategies to achieve those objectives.
Modules of Career Planning System
There are varieties of career planning systems used by different organization and each one differs from the other. Still, all the systems for career planning contain some common key components which are as follows;
This component of career planning system helps the individuals to set up their career goals, abilities, interests, and developmental tendencies. Multiple psychological tests are conducted to facilitate the individuals to recognize their occupational and proficient objectives. Self-quest enables the individuals to identify their inclinations according to different operational situations which participate in identifying and recognizing the degree of importance of work and relaxation. Career analysts are often used to support employees in self-assessment procedures and in understanding test consequences.
This component is responsible for informing the individuals about how the company evaluates their abilities and knowledge of job and what place they are on in the plans of the organization. Mostly this information is given by the managers in the process of performance assessment. Discussion about the career development may take place on later stages separately. Setting Goals
Long and short-term career goals and objectives are established by the individuals who are related to concerned and desired professional positions, necessary degree of professional competence and learning new skills. These individual career objectives are discussed with the managers and recorded in the career development plan of that individual.
In this stage, the individuals determine different ways to achieve their long-term and short-term goals and objectives which were identified in the previous stage and these ways are planned and organized to find out the activities required to complete them. These activities may be planned by attending the seminars and lectures and applications to fill the vacant positions within the company and by taking part in the interviews etc.
Roles of Individuals, Supervisors and Organization in Career Planning and Development
According to Sudarma, K. (2015) the individuals, supervisors and organization share equal responsibility in the planning of careers and its development. Role of Individuals
Individuals must be actively involved in the development and management of their careers driven by its useful effects on the welfare. The psychological contract is signed between the organization and its employees and it contains all the expectations that the employer and the individuals have from one another. Generally, this contract is focuses on the fact that the organization will provide security of job and proper opportunities of promotion to the individuals only if they maintain a proper professional behavior throughout their job period and keep on showing high performance in that regard. However, due to variations in technology, competition and social behaviors, psychological contract between employees and organizations has changed. The fresh psychological contract proposes that individuals can become more valued to organizations by becoming responsible for their own career planning.
Role of Managers
Managers of the career planning have a key role in the development and planning of careers of individuals regardless of the career planning system kinds in an organization. In general, the individuals ask for suggestions and advice to their managers directly, because it is the responsibility of the managers to identify the degree of training required and evaluate their kills to promote. Unluckily, the managers are hesitant to involve themselves in the career development plans of the individuals because they do not consider themselves as well prepared to answer the questions of the employees about their careers and give them appropriate advise in that regard. One reason for this behavior of managers can be that there is only limited time allotted to these activities and it makes them unable to comprehend the exact needs of the individual’s desires and goals related to their career. In order to avoid these issues, the managers must be able to show effectiveness of manager-employee discussion by acting as their instructor, assessor, analyst and recommendation representative.
Role of Organization
It is the main responsibility of the organization to provide necessary resources to the individuals in order to be successful in the planning of careers of the individuals Antoniu, E. (2010). These resources involve;
Career workshops should be arranged by the organization in order to give know how of career planning to the individuals through proper channel. These workshops enable individuals to perform self-evaluation, planning and setting up the goals and objectives of their intended career on individual level.
These systems help the employees to have complete knowledge about the upcoming job vacancies and training programs according to their interests.
Career Planning Manuals
These include printed manuals and guides for the individuals and contain multiple advices, exercises and discussions from the experts.
Specialists are provided to the individuals to identify their interests, goals, objective and inspirations.
It includes planning the stages of jobs, identifying the skills and matching the abilities of the individuals according to the requirements and goals of the organization.
In the current situations of the organizations, restructuring of the organizations and changes in their strategies for career planning is very important from the perspective of both the individuals and the organization. From the organizational point of view, failure to motivate the individuals in planning their careers can become a hindrance in the process of filing the free positions for jobs, reduction in the staff participation and inadequate use of money allotted to the training and progress programs. From the perspective of individuals, lack of career planning opportunities and programs may lead to frustration, anxiety and leads to the need of switching of the jobs which is not favorable for the organization as well as the individuals.
Career planning is operative when the organizations use entirely the services and awareness of the individuals and they are interested and driven to attain full performance and be pleased with their effort, which helps the organization to achieve its aims. The numerous appearances of redundancies, particularly in the current crisis, necessitates that individuals reveal positive abilities and aptitudes that prove to be crucial to the definite or likely employers.
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